Configuring a Beaglebone Black as an Access PointMay 02, 2017
A few weeks ago some friends and I competed in the Google Games, a sort of hybrid between a puzzlehunt and a coding competition. It was a fun event, and we managed to come in first! As a prize, each member of our team received a slick backpack and a Google Home, a smart speaker like the Amazon Echo, but designed and built by Google.
One common workaround to this issue is to setup a personal access point wired into the MIT network that the Google Home can then connect to. I didn’t have an access point lying around, but I remembered that I did have a BeagleBone Black that I got from an IAP Internet of Things class a couple years ago. I decided to configure it to function as an access point.
I’m not much of a tinkerer, and the resulting process ended up being fairly involved. It wouldn’t have been feasible without the help of the many people who built custom drivers and documented the steps they took online. This post is my form of repayment; hopefully it will be useful for someone in the future.
Part of the reason this was so complicated was that there were many versions and different models of the hardware involved, and different online guides relied on different components. Here’s the equipment I was working with:
- BeagleBone Black, Rev C, running Debian 3.8.13-bone68
- Ralink MT7601U USB Dongle
- MiniUSB to USB
- 5V DC Power Adapter
First connect the usb cable from the BeagleBone to a computer and install the necessary drivers. Once that is setup, the board should have established a network connection over USB and given itself the IP address
192.168.7.1. We can then ssh into it with:
ssh 192.168.7.1 -l root
MIT Network Registration
If we try to plug in our ethernet cable and then
curl https://google.com we’ll find that we’re redirected to an MIT landing page asking us to register with the network. This is easy to do with a browser, but for other devices, we need to first register it with the MIT network. This form requires the device’s MAC address, which can be found by running the
ifconfig command and looking for the
HWaddr field for the
Next, if we want to ssh into the BeagleBone remotely we need to give it a static IP address. This involves filling out another form and choosing a hostname.
Once this is done, we should be able to connect the power adapter, disconnect the USB cable, and then ssh into our board remotely with:
ssh [hostname].mit.edu -l root
Securing the board
Right now anyone who knows the device’s IP address or hostname (or anyone who’s scanning all of MIT’s IP addresses) can ssh into the device as root, since the default password is empty. We need to fix this so that some Chinese hacker doesn’t add our BeagleBoard to a botnet or something.
The default state of the Beaglebone includes two users:
debian. Both of these have default passwords (empty and
temppwd respectively) that should be changed with the
To be clear: on a public network like MIT, this step is absolutely necessary. There are in fact malicious actors all over the world who are scanning for IP addresses over port 22 and attempting to login with common username / password pairs. If you’ve set up a public-facing device you can even see all these attempts by running
cat /var/log/auth.log. Here’s a (very small) selection of my log:
May 2 09:51:21 [hostname] sshd: Failed password for invalid user pi from 188.8.131.52 port 41776 ssh2 May 2 12:26:15 [hostname] sshd: Failed password for invalid user admin from 184.108.40.206 port 57968 ssh2 May 2 14:10:03 [hostname] sshd: Failed password for invalid user usuario from 220.127.116.11 port 38646 ssh2 May 2 18:04:22 [hostname] sshd: Failed password for root from 18.104.22.168 port 46370 ssh2 May 2 19:17:14 [hostname] sshd: Failed password for invalid user ubnt from 22.214.171.124 port 49490 ssh2
These IP’s correspond to China, Argentina, Argentina, China, and Russia respectively.
MT7601U Custom Driver
Right now the
ifconfig command should list two interfaces:
eth0 (ethernet) and
lo (loopback, not important). (If you plug in the usb cable, you’ll see another interface
Now, plug in the WiFi USB dongle. Now,
ifconfig should show another interface:
ra0. This is called
wlan0 on more modern devices. The command
iwconfig should also show
ra0 and will say
Access Point: Not-Associated.
If it instead lists a MAC address, then your dongle is already configured to act as an Access Point, and you can skip to the next step.
The MT7601U chip supports Access Point mode as an experimental feature, and Mediatek doesn’t provide a driver. Luckily, people have written their own.
Clone that git repository and
git clone https://github.com/muratdemirtas/MT7601u.git cd MT7601u/
etc/RT2870AP/RT2870AP.dat with your favorite editor and change the
WPAPSK fields to set the SSID (WiFi network name) and password for the network respectively.
cp -v /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build/Module.symvers src/os/linux sudo make clean && make all && make install sudo rm -rvf src/os/linux/Module.symvers
Finally, we need to blacklist the pre-installed drivers for the MT7601u chip. Open
/etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf and add the line
Then, reboot the system (
reboot) and re-run
iwconfig. This time, you should see
ra0 have an associated
Furthermore, if you check the available WiFi networks on any other device, you should see one with the SSID you specified:
/etc/network/interfaces and add the following lines to configure the
auto ra0 iface ra0 inet static address 192.168.4.1 netmask 255.255.255.0
Restart the networking service with:
At this point, we should be able to connect to our WiFi network with a static IP in the
192.168.4.0/24 block. But, we can’t specify a static IP for our Google Home, so we’ll need to set up DHCP so that our access point can assign our Google Home an IP address dynamically.
We’ll do this with a service called
sudo apt-get install dnsmasq
Edit the file
/etc/dnsmasq.conf and add the lines:
interface=ra0 dhcp-range=ra0,192.168.4.2,192.168.4.10,4h bind-interfaces
This tells the AP to assign addresses in the specified range. Also, if it exists, move the file
/etc/dnsmasq.d/usb0-dhcp to your home directory:
mv /etc/dnsmasq.d/usb0-dhcp ~/
Warning: doing this will prevent you from talking to the device over usb, so if you mess up the
ssh connection somehow (by losing internet or forgetting the password), you’ll have no way of talking to the device.
Unfortunately, I don’t know why this step is needed; all I know is that everything magically began working once I did this (and I wasn’t inclined to tinker with a working setup).
Finally, restart the
service dnsmasq restart
OK, almost done: all that’s left is to configure our firewall such that packets sent to the
ra0 interface are forwarded to the
eth0 interface, and any returning packets entering the
eth0 interface are routed back through
ra0. This involves adding a few rules to
iptables, the default Linux firewall:
sudo iptables -F sudo sh -c "echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward " sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o ra0 -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i ra0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -t nat -S
With this, you should be able to connect to the WiFi network over any device, enter the password, and then access the internet! If that works, then simply use the Google Home app to connect it to the network.
After everything your beaglebone should look something like this:
I cut some holes in an appropriately-sized box and stuck the beaglebone in it because the LEDs were too bright. Then I stuck it under my bed and vowed to not mess with it for as long as possible: